How did geography shape civilizations in ancient India and China?


Geography had a number of influences in both regions, but one of the most pivotal factors that geography played in both areas was to create networks of exchange for India while limiting Chinese contact with others. India is a region connected to other areas with civilizations or proto-civilizations, such as the Mesopotamian cultures, able to communicate overland and via their location in the Indian Ocean. By contrast, China is relatively isolated due to the Himalayan Mountains to the south and the Gobi Desert to the north, restricting their relations with neighbors (with only a few exceptions like Korea) and making their civilization more homogeneous.

Despite of the great facts of geographical boundaries that shaped ancient India and ancient China, the other facts of each ancient countries can be seen below:

• Ancient India:

a. Ancient India was usually called the Harappan Civilization. It is because Harappa, one of the ancient cities. Harappa was only one of 1500 cities in the Indus River Valley.

b. Archaeologists have found the remnants of the city very well planned. Historians estimate that each large city could sustain as many as 80,000 people, so Ancient India was by a long way the largest early civilization.

c. The Indus Valley religion is also mysterious due to the language that has not yet been translated. Historians believe that they might have worshiped Mother Goddess.

• Ancient China:

a. Most historians approve that civilization happened around 2000 BC around the Yellow River. China was one of the early civilizations which were found all over the world. This country is different from other societies. The culture which developed upon Ancient China became the country of China that exists today.

b. The Xia Dynasty (2000 BC-1600 BC) was the first dynasty in the history of Chinese. It lasted about 500 years and included the reigns of 17 emperors.

c. The Shang Dynasty (1600 BC – 1046 BC) was naturally a clan that lived along the Yellow River during the Xia Dynasty.

d. The Zhou Dynasty (1046 BC-256 BC) lasted longer than other dynasty in Chinese history. The Zhou’s period is divided into sections called Western Zhou and Eastern Zhou because there were brief interruptions in their control of the government.


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