Non Polar Covalent Bond – Definition, Properties
A covalent bond is formed by an equal sharing of electrons from both participating atoms. The pair of electrons involved in this type of bonding is called a shared pair or bonding pair. Covalent bonds are also called molecular bonds.
What Is Non-Polar Covalent Bond?
A non-polar covalent bond is a type of chemical bonding that is formed when electrons are shared equally between two atoms. Thus, in an atom, the number of electrons shared by neighboring atoms will be the same.
This covalent bond is also called a non-polar bond because the difference in electronegativity is basically negligible.
It also means that there is no charge separation between the two atoms or both atoms have the same electronegativity.
This type of bond is also formed when the atoms separating the polar bond are arranged in such a way that the electric charges tend to cancel each other out.
A non-polar covalent bond can occur between two identical non-metallic atoms or between different atoms.
Non-polar covalent compounds
Covalent compounds in which there is no difference in electronegativity are known as non-polar covalent compounds.
In these compounds there is no change in electronegativity, in which there is no movement of a pair of electrons in the direction of the bonded atoms.
Consequently, there is no bonding or dipole moment between the atoms of the molecule and no development of charges on the atoms, which further makes the molecule non-polar and non-conductive.
Characteristics Of Non-polar Covalent Compounds
1. These are mainly existing as gases and less existence as liquids in it’s physical state.
2. They are generally soft in nature.
3. These are insoluble in water or less soluble in water. But these are more soluble in non-polar solvents like CCl4, CHCl3 etc.
4. These are insulators since they have no chargeable particles.
5. They have very low boiling and melting points,
6. Dipole moment: Since the bond is no more polar they have zero dipole moment.