โรคเบาหวานเป็นกลุ่มของความผิดปกติของการเผาผลาญที่เกิดจากการสูญเสียการผลิตอินซูลินไม่เพียงพอหรือเซลล์ไม่สามารถตอบสนองต่ออินซูลินที่ผลิตได้อย่างมีประสิทธิภาพซึ่งนำไปสู่การเพิ่มระดับน้ำตาลในเลือด. โดยทั่วไป, the pancreas releases insulin by Beta cells to move the glucose from the blood to cells where they can be broken down to release energy for the body and stores any excess glucose (น้ำตาล) as glycogen in the liver. Diabetes can occur when the pancreas produces very little or no insulin, or when the body does not respond appropriately to insulin due to distortion of insulin receptors.
Types of Diabetes
พิมพ์ 1 diabetes mellitus is characterized by loss of the insulin-producing beta cells of the pancreatic islets, leading to insulin deficiency. This type can be further classified as immune-mediated (dysfuction of immune system) หรือ idiopathic. The majority of type 1 diabetes is of the immune-mediated nature, in which a T cell-mediated autoimmune attack leads to the loss of beta cells and thus insulin. It causes approximately 10% of diabetes mellitus cases. Most affected people are otherwise healthy and of a healthy weight when onset occurs. Sensitivity and responsiveness to insulin are usually normal, โดยเฉพาะอย่างยิ่งในช่วงแรก. พิมพ์ 1 diabetes can affect children or adults, but was traditionally termed “juvenile diabetes” because a majority of these diabetes cases were found in children.
พิมพ์ 2 DM is characterized by insulin resistance (cells fail to respond to insulin hormone normally) which may be combined with relatively reduced insulin secretion. The defective responsiveness of body tissues to insulin is believed to involve the insulin receptor. อย่างไรก็ตาม, the specific defects are not known. Diabetes mellitus cases due to a known defect are classified separately. พิมพ์ 2 DM is the most common type of diabetes mellitus.
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) resembles type 2 DM in several respects, involving a combination of relatively inadequate insulin secretion and responsiveness. It occurs in about 2–10% of all pregnancies and may improve or disappear after delivery. อย่างไรก็ตาม, after pregnancy approximately 5–10% of women with GDM are found to have DM, most commonly type 2. GDM is fully treatable, but requires careful medical supervision throughout the pregnancy. Management may include dietary changes, blood glucose monitoring, and in some cases, insulin may be required.
Maturity onset diabetes of the young
Maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY) is a rare autosomal dominant inherited form of diabetes, due to one of several single-gene mutations causing defects in insulin production. It is significantly less common than the three main types. The name of this disease refers to early hypotheses as to its nature. Being due to a defective gene, this disease varies in age at presentation and in severity according to the specific gene defect; thus there are at least 13 subtypes of MODY. People with MODY often can control it without using insulin.
Other types are:
Prediabetes indicates a condition that occurs when a person’s blood glucose levels are higher than normal but not high enough for a diagnosis of type 2 DM. Many people who later develop type 2 DM spend many years in a state of prediabetes.
Latent autoimmune diabetes of adults (LADA) is a condition in which type 1 DM develops in adults. Adults with LADA are frequently initially misdiagnosed as having type 2 DM, based on age rather than cause.
If your insulin is ineffective, or not there at all, your kidneys cannot filter the glucose back into the blood. The kidneys will take water from your blood in order to dilute the glucose – which in turn fills up your bladder.
If you are urinating more than usual, you will need to replace that lost liquid. You will be drinking more than usual. Have you been drinking more than usual lately?
As the insulin in your blood is not working properly, or is not there at all, and your cells are not getting their energy, your body may react by trying to find more energy – อาหาร. You will become hungry.
ดังนั้นอารมณ์ของพวกเขาพร้อมกับการเปลี่ยนแปลงระดับฮอร์โมนอย่างมากในช่วงเวลาสั้น ๆ เช่นนี้
This might be the result of the above symptom (intense hunger).
Unusual weight loss
This is more common among people with Diabetes Type 1. As your body is not making insulin it will seek out another energy source (the cells aren’t getting glucose). Muscle tissue and fat will be broken down for energy. As Type 1 is of a more sudden onset and Type 2 is much more gradual, weight loss is more noticeable with Type 1.
If your insulin is not working properly, or is not there at all, glucose will not be entering your cells and providing them with energy. This will make you feel tired and listless.
This can be caused by tissue being pulled from your eye lenses. This affects your eyes’ ability to focus. With proper treatment this can be treated. There are severe cases where blindness or prolonged vision problems can occur.
How to Manage Diabetes
Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease, for which there is no known cure except in very specific situations. Management concentrates on keeping blood sugar levels as close to normal, without causing low blood sugar. This can usually be accomplished with a healthy diet, ออกกำลังกาย, ลดน้ำหนัก, and use of appropriate medications (insulin in the case of type 1 โรคเบาหวาน; oral medications, as well as possibly insulin, in type 2 โรคเบาหวาน).
Learning about the disease and actively participating in the treatment is important, since complications are far less common and less severe in people who have well-managed blood sugar levels. The goal of treatment is an HbA1ค level of 6.5%, but should not be lower than that, and may be set higher. Attention is also paid to other health problems that may accelerate the negative effects of diabetes. These include smoking, elevated cholesterol levels, ความอ้วน, ซึ่งรวมถึงยาบางชนิดที่ใช้รักษาแผลและอาการเสียดท้อง, and lack of regular exercise. Specialized footwear is widely used to reduce the risk of ulceration, or re-ulceration, in at-risk diabetic feet. Evidence for the efficacy of this remains equivocal, อย่างไรก็ตาม.
One might assume that the quantity of sugar consumed by an individual does not directly determine the blood sugar level. Considering the metabolism of glucose, one who consumes little amounts of sugar but has an insulin hormonal disorder is more likely to have Diabetes Mellitus, than a person who consumes more sugar without insulin hormonal disorder. Even if this might seem comforting it advisable to observe a general healthy living lifestyle so as to protect health and preserve life.
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